Although descriptions of enrichment programs are valuable for practitioners, practices, and services for gifted students, they must be backed by evidence, derived through a synthesis of research. This study examined research on enrichment programs serving gifted students and synthesized the current studies between 1985 and 2014 on the effects of enrichment programs.
A total of 26 studies were included in this meta-analysis, and the findings show that enrichment programs had a positive impact on both gifted students’ academic achievement (g = 0.96, 95% CI [0.64, 1.30], under a random-effects model) and socioemotional development (g = 0.55, 95% CI [0.32, 0.79], under a random-effects model).
Regarding moderators of the effects, types of programs, and grade levels influenced both effect sizes of academic achievement and socioemotional development. The largest effect size was observed for summer residential programs in terms of academic achievement and for a combination of summer and academic year program in terms of socioemotional development.