Strong literacy skills are crucial to ensuring an individual's future educational and economic success. Existing evidence suggests the transition from elementary to middle school is a decisive period for literacy development
This paper investigates the impact of extended
learning time in literacy instruction on subsequent cognitive outcomes, capitalizing on the existence of a natural experiment born out of a
district's use of an exogenously- determined cutoff in Iowa Test scores
in fifth grade to assign students to an additional literacy course in
The findings suggest that exposure to this intervention
generates strong negative impacts for black students, and noisy positive
impacts for white, Latino, and Asian students.